The ICBEMP Science publications may be ordered by providing your mailing address and the publication title and series number (PNW-GTR-***) to:

Publications Distribution
Pacific Northwest Research Station
333 S.W. First Avenue
P.O. Box 3890
Portland, OR 97208-3890

phone: (503) 808-2125

 Some of the publications are available in PDF format at the following web site --

The following science publications have been published:

Station Misc: Quigley, Thomas M.; Rebecca A. Gravenmier; Sylvia J. Arbelbide; Heidi Bigler Cole; Russell T. Graham; Richard W. Haynes. 1999. The Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project: Scientific Assessment. CD-ROM.

This CD-ROM contains digital versions (Adobe Acrobat portable document format [.pdf] of five major scientific documents prepared for the Project: 1) A Framework for Ecosystem Management in the Interior Columbia Basin and Portions of the Klamath and Great Basins; 2) Highlighted Scientific Findings of the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project; 3) Status of the Columbia Basin: Summary of Scientific Findings; 4) An Integrated Scientific Assessment for Ecosystem Management in the Interior Columbia Basin and Portions of the Klamath and Great Basins; 5) Assessment of Ecosystem Components in the Interior Columbia Basin and Portions of the Klamath and Great Basins.

PNW-RN-519: McCool, Stephen F. and Richard W. Haynes. 1996. Projecting Population Change in the Interior Columbia River Basin. 14 p.

This research note presents two population projections (low and high) by county in the interior Columbia River basin.

PNW-RN-520: McGinnis, Wendy J. 1996. Selected Economic and Demographic Data for Counties of the Interior Columbia River Basin. 84 p.

This research note is an effort to make some of the basic demographic and economic data available to the public for the counties involved in the assessment.

PNW-RN-522: Marcot, B.G. 1997. Research Information Needs on Terrestrial Vertebrate Species of the Interior Columbia River Basin and Northern Portions of the Klamath and Great Basins: A Research Development and Application Database. 29 p.

The database includes 482 potential research study topics on 232 individual species and 18 species groups of animals, representing significant gaps in scientific knowledge. Research study topics in the database can be retrieved by use of keyword searches.

The database is available at the following web site --

PNW-RN-538: Crone, Lisa K., Richard W. Haynes and Nicholas E. Reyna. 1999. Different Perspectives on Economic Base. 21 p.

This research note presents two approaches for measuring an economic base. A detailed look at four selected counties results in similar finding from both approaches.

PNW-RP-499: Ferguson, Sue A. 1997. A Climate-Change Scenario for the Columbia River Basin. 9 p.

Description of the method used to generate a climate-change scenario for the Columbia River basin. The scenario considers climate patterns that may change if the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide, or its greenhouse equivalent, were to double over pre-Industrial Revolution values.

PNW-RP-524: Hessburg, Paul F., Bradley G. Smith, Scott D. Kreiter, Craig A. Miller, Cecilia H. McNicoll, and Michele Wasienko-Holland. 2000. Classifying plant Series-Level Forest Potential Vegetation Types: Methods for Subbasins Sampled in the Midscale Assessment of the Interior Columbia Basin. 59 p.

This report is focused on method used to classify and map potential vegetation of individual patches of sampled subwatersheds at the plant level in the Interior Columbia River Basin Assessment Area.

PNW-GTR-358: McGinnis, Wendy J. and Harriet H. Christensen. 1996. The Interior Columbia River Basin: Patterns of Population, Employment, and Income Change. 43 p.

Describes some basic population characteristics of the area and focuses on the economic conditions there during the last several decades by using population, personal income, nonfarm labor income, and employment as primary indicators.

PNW-GTR-374: Haynes, Richard W.; Graham, Russell T.; Quigley, Thomas M.; technical editors. 1996. A Framework for Ecosystem Management in the Interior Columbia Basin including Portions of the Klamath and Great Basins. 67 p.

Discusses the principles, concepts, processes, relationships, and methods that may be useful in implementing ecosystem management. The framework seeks to place planning procedures within a broad, proactive process that considers the social, economic, and biophysical components of ecosystems at the earliest stages of policy design. Designed for application on lands administered by the Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management, it could also be used by tribes, state agencies and private land owners.

PNW-GTR-380: Schlosser, William E. and Keith Blatner. 1997. Special Forest Products: An Eastside Perspective. 27 p.

This report provides an overview of the special forest products industry east of the Cascade Range and evaluates its potential for expansion.

PNW-GTR-382: Quigley, Thomas M.; Haynes, Richard W.; Graham, Russell T.; technical editors. 1996. Integrated Scientific Assessment for Ecosystem Management in the Interior Columbia Basin and Portions of the Klamath and Great Basins. 303 p.

This publication links landscape, aquatic, terrestrial, social and economic characterizations to describe biophysical and social systems. Integration was achieved through the use of a framework built around six goals for ecosystem management and three different views of the future.

PNW-GTR-385: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1996. Status of the Interior Columbia Basin: Summary of Scientific Findings. 144 p.

This document is a summary of the scientific findings from the Project. The information that is highlighted represents an integrated view of biophysical and socioeconomic elements at a scale never before attempted. The risks and opportunities are characterized in the broad context of the Basin for managers and the public to use as a foundations for discussion about future management.

PNW-GTR-398: Waters, Edward C., David W. Holland and Richard W. Haynes. 1997. The Economic Impact of Public Resource Supply Constraints in Northeast Oregon. 23 p.

Computable general equilibrium results under several different resource policy scenarios are examined and contrasted with a fixed-price analysis.

PNW-GTR-399: Saab, Victoria A. and Terrell D. Rich. 1997. Large-Scale Conservation Assessment for Neotropical Migratory Land Birds in the Interior Columbia River Basin. 56 p.

Examines population trends, estimate neotropical migratory land bird responses to alternative management activities, and provide recommendations by habitat and species for the long-term persistence of neotropical migratory land bird populations.

PNW-GTR-404: Quigley, Thomas M. and Heidi Bigler Cole. 1997. Highlighted Scientific Findings of the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project. 34 p.

This document provides a quick look at the science findings. The findings show the intensity and magnitude of problems and will help managers develop more effective strategies.

PNW-GTR-405: Quigley, Thomas M.; Arbelbide, Sylvia J.; technical editors. 1997. An Assessment of Ecosystem Components in the Interior Columbia Basin and Portions of the Klamath and Great Basins. 4 volumes.


Chapter 1 -Introduction and Executive Summaries
Chapter 2 -Biophysical Environments of the Basin: Contains multi-scale descriptions of the geologic, geoclimatic, climatic, potential vegetation, soils and hydrologic systems organization of the Basin. The maps and descriptions are based on landscape components that do not display high temporal variability. They often comprise the basis for delineation of environmental constraints for ecological pattern analysis. Regional, subregional and landscape scales of biophysical environment maps were developed.


Chapter 3 -Landscape Dynamics of the Basin: Addresses the dynamics of landscapes. The effects of roads and related land uses, introduction of exotics, land conversion, fire exclusion, and other factors on different vegetation communities are evaluated. Ecological integrity which was considered to be the ability of landscapes to renew themselves considering their paleoecological, historical, current and future biophysical potentials was also evaluated.


Chapter 4 -Broadscale Assessment of Aquatic Species and Habitats: The assessment of aquatic resources was directed along four primary themes. The geophysical and biological settings that define the natural potential of the Basin to provide for aquatic resources was characterized. Anthropogenic factors that affect aquatic habitats and species with special emphasis on effects of Federal land management were identified. The current condition of aquatic habitats and species were assessed. This information was synthesized to provide a regional context for Federal management strategies to protect and restore aquatic and riparian habitats.
Chapter 5 -Terrestrial Ecology of the Basin: Provides an ecosystem context for management and restoration of habitats and environments for terrestrial species and communities. A classification system for environmental correlates and ecological functions of species is provided, and functional groups of species are identified based on their ecological roles. Selection of bioindicators for monitoring environmental changes and for assessing problems of grassland deterioration are discussed and possible actions for mitigation and restoration are examined.


Chapter 6 -Economic Assessment of the Basin: Addresses the production of ecosystem goods, functions and conditions that society wants (economic efficiency), whose distribution of benefits is according to societal wishes (equity), and without adversely affecting economic activity. The economic issues related to fish, minerals, range, recreation and timber are characterized.
Chapter 7 -Social Assessment of the Basin: Documents the many types of human-environment interactions to provide a better understanding of the social, cultural and institutional context within which major ecosystem management policy questions can be addressed. A variety of interactions between people and the environment in the Basin are described.
Chapter 8 -Information System Development and Documentation: Provides a broad overview of the data, databases, and models employed by the ICBEMP and includes general recommendations for information management.

PNW-GTR-406: Quigley, Thomas M., Kristine M. Lee and Sylvia J. Arbelbide; technical editors. 1997. Evaluation of EIS Alternatives by the Science Integration Team. 1094 p.

Documents the evaluation of alternatives for the Eastside and Upper Columbia River Basin Draft Environmental Impact Statements presented to the Science Integration Team. Seven alternatives were presented for analysis.

PNW-GTR-410: Marcot, B.G., L.K. Croft, J.F. Lehmkuhl, R.H. Naney, C.G. Niwa, W.R. Owen and R.E. Sandquist. 1998. Macroecology, paleoecology, and ecological integrity of terrestrial species and communities of the Interior Columbia River basin and Northern Portions of the Klamath and Great Basins. 131 p.

This report presents information on biogeography and broad-scale ecology of selected fungi, lichens, bryophytes, vascular plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates of the Interior Columbia River basin and adjacent areas. Maps of terrestrial ecological integrity are presented.

PNW-GTR-420: Witmer, Gary W., Sandra K. Martin and Rodney D. Saylor. 1998. Forest Carnivore Conservation and Management in the Interior Columbia Basin: Issues and Environmental Correlates. 51 p.

Eleven medium-to large-sized carnivore species present in the Columbia Basin were selected for the identification of issues surrounding conservation and population viability. The current state of scientific knowledge of the ecology and management of each species was surveyed through review of recent literature.

PNW-GTR-434: Ferguson, Sue A. 1998. Air Quality Climate in the Columbia River Basin. 23 p.

This publication describes aspects of climate that influence air quality in the Columbia River Basin. Analytical tools were developed to show spatial and temporal patterns of mean-monthly mixing heights, precipitation scavenging, upper level and surface trajectory winds, and drought that inhibit pollution uptake.

PNW-GTR-445: Ferguson, Sue A. 1999. Climatology of the Interior Columbia River basin. 31 p.

This report describes climate means and trends in each of three major ecological zones and 13 ecological reporting units in the Interior Columbia River basin. Some impacts of changes in climatic means and trends on ecological conditions in the basin are discussed.

PNW-GTR-447: Schoettle, A.W., K. Tonnessen, J. Turk, J. Vimont, and R. Amundson. 1999. An Assessment of the Effects of Human-caused Air Pollution on Resources within the Interior Columbia River Basin. 66 p.

This assessment examined the current situation and potential trends due to pollutants such as ammonium, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulates, carbon, and ozone. Ecosystems and resources at risk are identified, including certain forests, lichens, cryptogamic crusts, high-elevation lakes and streams, arid lands, and Class I areas.

PNW-GTR-451: Fluharty, David L. 2000. Characterization and Assessment of Economic Systems in the Interior Columbia Basin: Fisheries. 114 p.

This report address the economic value of commercial, recreational, and tribal fishing which is one measure of the importance of fisheries in the interior Columbia River basin (the basin) but only part of the values associated with fish of that region.

PNW-GTR-453: Horne, Amy L., and Richard W. Haynes. 1999. Developing Measures of Socioeconomic Resiliency in the Interior Columbia Basin. 41 p.

This report presents the measures of socioeconomic resiliency for the 100 counties studied in the ICBEMP.

PNW-GTR-454: Hessburg, Paul F.; Bradley G. Smith; Craig A. Miller; Scott D. Kreiter; and R. Brion Slater. 1999. Modeling Change in Potential Landscape Vulnerability to Forest Insect and Pathogen Disturbances: Methods for Forested Subwatersheds Sampled in the Midscale Interior Columbia River Basin Assessment. 56 p.

Description of methods used in the mid-scale ecological assessment of the interior Columbia River basin to assess recent change in vulnerability of forest vegetation to disturbances caused by the major forest pathogens and insects of the basin.

PNW-GTR-458: Hessburg, Paul F.; Bradley G. Smith; Scott D. Kreiter; Craig A. Miller; R. Brion Salter; Cecilia H. McNicoll; and Wendel J. Hann. 1999. Historical and Current Forest and Range Landscapes in the Interior Columbia River Basin and Portions of the Klamath and Great Basins. Part I: Linking Vegetation Patterns and Landscape Vulnerability to Potential Insect and Pathogen Disturbances. 357 p.

Part 1: Linking Vegetation Patterns and Landscape Vulnerability to Potential Insect and Pathogen Disturbances. This document describes changes in vegetation patterns and landscape vulnerability to fire, insect, and pathogen disturbances over the most recent 50-60 years based on random samples of subwatersheds distributed in subbasins on all public and private ownerships within the interior Columbia River basin.

PNW-GTR-462: Galliano, Steven J., and Gary M. Loeffler. 1999. Place Assessment: How People Define Ecosystems. 31 p.

Place assessments in the basin demonstrated the importance of place to humanity, illustrated how inventory concepts of place can be operationalized for ecosystem assessments, and suggested how place assessments may be used in subsequent levels of analysis, planning, and decision making.

PNW-GTR-463: Graham, Russell T.; Alan E. Harvey; Theresa B. Jain; and Jonalea R. Tonn. 1999. The Effects of Thinning and Similar Stand Treatments on Fire Behavior in Western Forests. 27 p.

The authors address the thinning-fire issue by describing forest treatments defined as thinnings, and those that could be interpreted as thinnings, and then showing how fires would behave in resulting stand structures, compositions, and fuels created by well-defined treatments. Predictions are based on a variety of literature available for western conifer forests.

PNW-GTR-472: Galliano, Steven J; Gary M. Loeffler. 2000. Scenery Assessment: Scenic Beauty at the Ecoregion Scale. 30p.

This report, a portion of the social science assessment for the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project, explains the procedures used to inventory scenic quality throughout the basin by using two primary indicators: landscape character and scenic condition.

PNW-GTR-477: Charles Harris, McLaughlin, W., Brown, G., Becker, D.R. Rural Communities in the Inland Northwest:  An Assessment of Small Rural Communities in the Interior and Upper Columbia River Basins.

The characteristics and conditions of the rural communities in the ICBEMP region, which are complex and constantly changing, were examined. The research assessed the resilience of the regionís communities, which was defined as a communityís ability to respond and adapt to change in the most positive, constructive ways possible for mitigating the impacts of change on the community.

PNW-GTR-483: Crone, Lisa K. and Richard W. Haynes. 1999. Revised Estimates for Direct-Effect Recreational Jobs in the Interior Columbia River Basin. 29 p.

Description and review of the methodology used to derive the original estimates for direct employment associated with recreation on Federal lands in the interior Columbia River basin and details the changes in methodology and data used to derive new estimates.


Source Habitats for Terrestrial Vertebrates of Focus in the Interior Columbia Basin: Broad-Scale Trends and Management Implications Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-485 by Michael J. Wisdom, Richard S. Holthausen, Barbara C. Wales, Christina D. Hargis, Victoria A. Saab, Danny C. Lee, Wendel J. Hann, Terrell D. Rich, Mary M. Rowland, Wally J. Murphy, and Michelle R. Eames

Volume 1: Overview - Overview of objectives, methods, key results, and management implications. Particularly useful in serving broad-scale planning issues, objectives, and strategies for the interior
Columbia basin as a whole.

Volume 2: Group Level Results - Detailed results that support and complement results in volume 1. Especially important to consider as part of step-down implementation procedures and related management conducted by field units within the interior
Columbia basin.

Volume 3: Appendices - Provides additional data and results in support of both volumes 1 and 2.

PNW-GTR-491: James, Sam June 2000. Earthworms of the Columbia River Assessment Area. 23p. Electronic format only right now.

This report summarizes the main issues about the ecology of earthworms and their impact on the physical and chemical status of the soil in the Columbia River Basin Assessment Area.

PNW-GTR-512: Niwa, Christine G., Roger E. Sandquist, Rod Crawford, Terrence J. Frest, Terry Griswold, Paul Hammond, Elaine Ingham, Sam James, Edward J. Johannes, James Johnson, W.P. Kemp, James LaBonte, John D. Lattin, James McIver, Joel McMillin, Andy Moldenke, John Moser, Darrell Ross, Tim Schowalter, Vince Tespedino, and Michael R. Wagner. 2001. Invertebrates of the Columbia River Basin Assessment Area. 72 p.

A general background on functional groups of invertebrates in the Columbia River Basin and how they affect sustainability and productivity of their ecological communities is presented. The functional groups include detritivores, predators, pollinators, and grassland and forest herbivores. Invertebrate biodiversity and species of conservation interest are discussed. Effects of management practices on wildlands and suggestions to mitigate them are presented. Recommendations for further research and monitoring are given.


PNW-GTR-553:†† Bunting, Stephen C; Kingery, James L.; Hemstrom, Miles A.;Schroeder, M.A.; Gravenmier, R.A. and W.J. Hann.(2002) Altered rangeland ecosystems in the interior Columbia basin. 


A workshop was held to address specific questions related to altered rangeland ecosystems within the interior Columbia basin. Focus was primarily on public lands administered by the Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management. Altered ecosystems were considered to be those where human induced or natural disturbances are of sufficient magnitude to affect ecosystem processes, causing long-term loss or displacement of native community types and loss of productivity, making it difficult or impossible to restore these ecosystems to historical conditions. ††This document summarizes the types of potential vegetation types that are degraded, major causes for degradation, and potential restoration responses.

PNW-GTR-583:†† B.G. Marcot, B.C. Wales, R. Demmer.Range maps of terrestrial species in the interior Columbia River basin and northern portions of the Klamath and Great Basins. 2003.

Current range distribution maps are presented for 14 invertebrate, 26 amphibian, 26 reptile, 339 bird, and 125 mammal species and selected subspecies (530 total taxa) of the interior Columbia River basin and northern portions of the Klamath and Great Basins in the United States. Also presented are maps of historical ranges of 3 bird and 10 mammal species, and 6 maps of natural areas designated by federal agencies and other organizations. The species range maps were derived from a variety of publications and from expert review and unpublished data, and thus differ in degree of accuracy and resolution. The species maps are available in computer versions and are indexed herein by common and scientific names.

The following ICBEMP science publications may be ordered by providing your mailing address and the publication title and series number (INT-GTR-***) to:

Publications, Ogden Service Center
Rocky Mountain
Research Station
324 25th Street
Ogden, UT 84401-2394

phone: (801) 625-5437
fax: (801) 625-5129 Attn: Publications
e-mail: pubs/

INT-GTR-340 : Keane, Robert E.; Donald G. Long; James P. Menakis; Wendel J. Hann; and Collin D. Bevins. 1996. Simulating Coarse-Scale Vegetation Dynamics Using the Columbia River Basin Succession Model -- CRBSUM. 50 p.

This paper details the landscape succession model developed for coarse-scale assessment called CRBSUM (Columbia River Basin Succession Model) and presents some general results of the application of this model to the entire basin. This paper was written as a users guide for those who wish to run the model and interpret results. It was also prepared to document some of the results of the ICBEMP simulation effort.

INT-GTR-370 : Barrett, Stephen W.; Stephen F. Arno; and James P. Menakis. 1997. Fire Episodes in the Inland Northwest (1540 - 1940) Based on Fire History Data. 17 p.

Presents maps of major fire episodes in the inland northwestern United States between 1540 and 1940 based on a compilation of fire history studies. Estimates annual acreage historically burned in this region and compares that with recent fire years.

The following articles were not published by either the PNW or Rocky Mountain Research Stations, although the work was supported by these offices. The articles are available through the journals in which they were published:

Keane, Robert E. and Donald G. Long. A comparison of coarse scale fire effects simulation stratagies. 1998. Northwest Science. 72(2):76-90.

Quigley, Thomas M., et al. In: Eastside forests and fish: proposals for the Interior Columbia River Basin. 1998. Journal of Forestry. 96(10):4-39.